acta satech Journal of the Life & Physical Sciences Babcock

Biochemical Assessment of Hematological and biochemical changes induced by Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in selected parts of Z. mays diets fed weaned male albino rats
Ogunnowo, A. A.1; Onajobi, F.D.2; Osilesi, O.2 and Talabi, O. T.2
1Department of Basic Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Babcock University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Benjamin S. Carson School of Medicine, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Lagos, Nigeria.
July 2020

Background: Present study investigated the toxic effects of Pb bio-accumulation in parts of Z. mays on selected biochemical, hematological and body weight changes of weaned male albino rats. Methodology: Test soil samples were separately mixed with Pb (NO3)2, at 80, 160 and 240 mg/kg. Z. mays planted on each of these soils were harvested after 90 days, and subsequently analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Roots, stalks, leaves and tassels of Z. mays were used to compound feeds for toxicological investigation. Weaned male albino rats (Wistar strain) were randomly distributed into six groups of six rats per group: group 1 (normal), group 2 (control), groups 7 (Pb tassels), group 8 (Pb leaves), group 9 (Pb stalks) and group 10 (Pb roots), were treated for 30 days. Thereafter, animals were anaesthetized, sacrificed and tissue samples were collected for hematological and biochemical changes using standard methods. Results: In vivo antioxidant study showed that group 10 had significantly reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels, when compared with group 2. Liver alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were elevated in groups 7 to 10, when compared with group 2. Group 10 had significant elevated serum urea and creatinine concentrations, when compared with group 2. Hematological analysis showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly reduced in experimental animals (p < 0.05) when compared with the group 2, while TLC and platelets elevated significantly (P < 0.05) in all groups that were administered lead bioaccumulation in parts of Z. mays diets relative to the group 2. Conclusion: Study concluded that Pb bio-accumulation in Z. mays diets induced toxic effects on fed weanling rats. Recommendation: It was recommended that Z. mays plant parts be subjected to quality control checks for the presence of high levels of Pb before use in compounding animal feeds.
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